Tuesday, July 22, 2014

One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil - the summary

What have we learned over the last little while about using sunflower oil in our products?

We've learned that sunflower oil contains linoleic acid, which helps repair skin's barrier mechanisms and helps prevent transepidermal water loss (TEWL); oleic acid, which softens and moisturizes skin; and phytosterols, which reduce inflammation and itching as well as TEWL.We've learned sunflower oil feels light but a bit greasy, it has no taste or smell, and it is inexpensive.

Because it's an oil, it's oil soluble, which means it can be used in any anhydrous or non-water containing product, like a body oil, whipped butter, balm, or bath oil. It can be incorporated into an oil-in-water lotion or any other emulsified product using an emulsifier, like Polawax, e-wax, Incroquat BTMS-50, and so on. You can't incorporate it into a water only product like a toner or cleanser unless you use some kind of solubilizer, like PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil, polysorbate 80, Caprol Micro Express, or caprylyl/capryl glucoside, to name a few.

Other posts in this series:
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in body oils
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in blooming or dispersing bath oils
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in lotion bars
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in emulsified scrubs
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in a zinc oxide cream
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in a whipped butter
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in an oil based scrub
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in a body butter

Monday, July 21, 2014

One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in solid perfume

As we saw on Friday, sunflower oil is a great addition to a lip balm. And it's a great addition to a solid perfume because it offers no odour and is light in colour and skin feel.

Solid perfumes are very basic in nature because the main goal is to keep them solid in all kinds of weather by putting together a wax, a butter, and an oil. It's effectively a lotion bar with a bit more oil to make it melt on your skin a little easier.

Sunflower oil is a great choice here because it's inexpensive, has no odour or taste, and will keep your bars a light colour, if that's what you want. It doesn't matter that it's greasy feeling because you're only putting a dab on your skin in strategic locations, so it won't end up on your hands.

Check out my SnapGuide visual tutorial for creating solid perfumes! 

SOLID PERFUME RECIPE
30% beeswax
30% butter of choice
37% oil
3% fragrance or essential oils*

Before using any essential oils, check the safe usage rates. 3% is a lot, and I really recommend you use fragrance oils if you're new to bath and body stuff!

Heat all but the fragrance oils until the mixture has turned to liquid. Add the fragrance oils, then pour into your containers of choice. Let set until completely cooled. I like to put mine in the fridge or freezer until set. Label and rejoice!

Feel free to use any containers you like. Because they contain no water, you can use metal or plastic containers. I love lip balm tubes as they come in so many different sizes and looks, but you can use pots as well. There are so many cute containers for balms, lip balms, and solid perfumes, you might go a little crazy ordering them! (I felt a warning was needed!)

And don't forget to create some cute labels for these products with awesome names. That's one of the most fun bits about making bath & body products!

Other posts in this series:
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in body oils
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in blooming or dispersing bath oils
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in lotion bars
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in emulsified scrubs
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in a zinc oxide cream
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in a whipped butter
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in an oil based scrub
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in a body butter
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in balms
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in lip balms

Join me tomorrow as we wrap up this series and consider what we've learned! 

Sunday, July 20, 2014

Weekend Wonderings: Why can't I use Germaben II with an emulsifed scrub? Can I use the deodorant additive in a solid scrub bar?

WHY CAN'T I USE GERMABEN II IN AN EMULSIFIED SCRUB?
In this post on making a black cocoa emulsified scrub, Sophia asks: Oh no, I can't use germaben II? I thought because there is e-wax in it I could use it? So what will happen? I watched a lady use it in her e-sugar scrub and it worked for her... now I'm worried! I had been using phenonip but Wholesale Supplies Plus ran out!

When you're considering what preservative to use, you'll want to know what type of product you have. An emulsified scrub is an anhydrous product, which means it doesn't contain water.

Take a look at the preservatives comparison chart. So what does Germaben II require to work? Most of the ingredients in Germaben II require water to dissolve, so it won't work in an emulsified scrub that contains no water. You need to find something that works with anhydrous products, like Liquipar Oil, Phenonip, or Optiphen.

I don't think it did work for the woman who made an emulsified sugar scrub because using a water soluble preservative in the anhydrous product is on par with using no preservative at all in the product. Again, Germaben II is a preservative that requires water to work, and without water, it's a fail.

Related posts:
Preservatives section of the blog
Preservatives: Choosing a preservative
Preservatives: Water activity and sugar scrubs

CAN I USE THE DEODORANT ADDITIVE AT BRAMBLEBERRY IN A SOLID SCRUB BAR?
In this post, Road Trip Essentials: Scrub bars (part two) Honey Lady asks: I am wondering as I read this several years after it's been posted if I could make this with the Deodorant Additive available from Brambleberry? I use it in a deodorant soap I make, and like it. But I know several people who could use 1.) foot scrubs, AND 2.) deodorants for stinky toes!

The deodorant additive at Brambleberry has an INCI of Saccharomyces Ferment, Potassium Sorbate, Sodium Benzoate. The last two things are preservatives, which we know work only in water soluble products, so we can conclude that this is a water soluble ingredient. Can we add it to a solid scrub bar? We can add it to an emulsified scrub bar because it contains an emulsifier that will allow us to add some water soluble ingredients. I regularly use water soluble sodium lactate as a bar hardener, and I occasionally throw in some proteins or other additives in the mix when I feel I need them.

As a secondary note, you can make a nice spray for stinky feet using a few ingredients! You could make it with 2% to 3% deodorant additive with maybe 1% peppermint essential oil, 0.5% to 2% preservative of choice, and water to make 100%.

Here's another idea! Note that pretty much all this stuff is optional because you can make a perfectly good spray with distilled water, preservative, peppermint essential oil, and the solubilizer for the oil. But I'm adding these things because they offer some great features for your feet! (Should those be feet-ures?) I'm adding the allantoin because it's good at skin softening and protecting, the peppermint hydrosol and peppermint essential oil because they're good at masking odours and increasing circulation, aloe vera to offer moisturizing and anti-inflammatory properties,

STINKY FEET SPRAY
HEATED WATER PHASE
67% distilled water
20% peppermint hydrosol
10% aloe vera
0.5% allantoin

COOL DOWN PHASE
1% polysorbate 20 or other solubilizer
1% peppermint essential oil
0.5% to 2% preservative

Mix the polysorbate 20 (or other solubilizer) with the peppermint essential oil. Put aside. In a heatproof container like a Pyrex jug, weigh out the the distilled water, peppermint hydrosol, aloe vera, and allantoin and put into a double boiler and heat until 70˚C. Hold at that temperature for 20 minutes. Remove from the heat, allow to cool to 45˚C before adding the cool down phase ingredients.

Add some of the deodorant additive 2% to 3% in the cool down phase and remove 2% to 3% from the water phase to keep the total at 100%. (I'm adding it in the cool down as I don't know if it's heat sensitive!)

And as a note, as I mention on the side bar of the blog, there are no old posts. I get notifications for every single comment, so the earliest post is as relevant as the newest one when it comes to getting my attention! 

Join me tomorrow as we take a look at using sunflower oil in solid perfumes before wrapping up the series on Tuesday.

Saturday, July 19, 2014

Weekend Wonderings: Adding and removing from the water amount

When we're adding or removing water soluble ingredients from a recipe, we tend to remove or add to the amount of water in the product.

Let's say we have a recipe that looks like this....

BASIC LOTION RECIPE
HEATED WATER PHASE
74% water

HEATED OIL PHASE
20% oil
5% emulsifier

COOL DOWN PHASE
1% preservative

...and we want to add 0.5% allantoin, how do we modify the recipe? We add the allantoin and remove some of the water.

HEATED WATER PHASE
73.5% water
0.5% allantoin

What do we do if we want to add glycerin at 3%?

HEATED WATER PHASE
70.5% water
0.5% allantoin
3% glycerin

What if we want to add 2% hydrolyzed protein, 1% fragrance oil, 0.5% green tea extract, and 2% panthenol, as well as the 3% glycerin and 0.5% allantoin? (2+1+0.5+2+3+0.5=9).

HEATED WATER PHASE
65% water
3% glycerin
2% hydrolyzed protein
0.5% allantoin

COOL DOWN PHASE
1% fragrance oil
2% panthenol
0.5% green tea extract
1% preservative

When we add or remove water soluble ingredients into a recipe, we remove water from the water amount. Why do we do that?

We want our recipes to total 100%. It makes it easier to add and remove things, to see how much we should be using of things, and to modify the recipe. (If the recipe is over 100%, it's not the end of the world, but it's not the best idea!) Let's say we know we can use up to 0.5% of something in a recipe; having the recipe in percentages totalling 100% makes it easier to add that ingredient to the product. Just add it at 0.5%. (If your recipe totals 120%, how much do you add now? See, it's easier to use 100%.)

Related posts:
How do I modify the recipe when I remove or add something?
Learning to formulate: The water phase
Learning to formulate: A note about percentages
What happens if the recipe totals more than 100%?

This rule is for water soluble ingredients. So what do we do if we want to include more oil soluble stuff? Well, that's a bit trickier, but you can do it!

HEATED OIL PHASE
20% oil
5% emulsifier

Let's say we want to add 3% cetyl alcohol to the product to thicken it up. Then we would add 3% cetyl alcohol and remove 3% from the water amount...WAIT! STOP! Don't we have to do something else? Why yes, yes we do! We have to increase the amount of emulsifier in the product as well. So let's say we're using Polawax, which has a suggested usage rate of 25% of the oil phase.* We have to increase the emulsifier by 0.25% for every extra 1% of oil soluble ingredient we add. In this case, it means we have to increase the Polawax by 0.75%. We are adding 3.75% to the oil phase (3% cetyl alcohol and 0.75% emulsifier), so we need to remove 3.75% from the water phase.

*This is only a rule for Polawax. Every other wax has its own usage rules. For instance, e-wax NF is generally used at 1% more than Polawax. In this case, you'd be using 6.75% e-wax NF.

HEATED WATER PHASE
70.25% distilled water

HEATED OIL PHASE
20% oil
5.75% emulsifier
3% cetyl alcohol

Let's say you wanted to add 2% dimethicone and 2% cyclomethicone to the cool down phase, along with 1% Vitamin E and 1% fragrance or essential oil. We have a total of 6% oils that are to be added to the product. If we are using Polawax at 25% of the oil phase (0.25% for every 1% of oil used), then we have to add 1.5% Polawax to the mix, for a total of 7.5% extra oil to the product. We would remove 7.5% from the water.

HEATED WATER PHASE
62.75% distilled water

HEATED OIL PHASE
20% oil
7.25% emulsifier
3% cetyl alcohol

COOL DOWN PHASE
2% dimethicone
2% cyclomethicone
1% Vitamin E
1% fragrance or essential oil
1% preservative

Yep, when we add things like fragrance or essential oils, we have to increase the emulsifier. I don't generally do this as the increase of 0.25% emulsifier when I'm adding 1% fragrance or essential oils isn't going to make a huge difference. Besides, given that I'm measuring in 1 gram increments, I'm sure I have a little extra in there any way!

Join me tomorrow for more Weekend Wonderings!

Friday, July 18, 2014

One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in lip balms

As we saw yesterday, sunflower oil is a great addition in a balm. So what about lip balms? Yep, it's a great addition there, too! As a light feeling, tasteless, and odourless oil, it's a great addition that offers a bit of shine.

LIP SHIMMER STICK BASE
8% candellia wax
9% beeswax
18% shea butter
12% mango butter
52% liquid oils
1% Vitamin E (optional)

Melt everything except the Vitamin E in a double boiler until melted. Remove from the heat, then add the Vitamin E. Mix well. Remove a tablespoon at a time to make 2 lip balm tubes.

Can you use all beeswax in this recipe? Yes, you can! We generally use candellia wax at half the amount of beeswax, so if you want to change the recipe to include all beeswax, we'd use about 25%  (8 x 2 = 16 + 9% beeswax = 25%). Remove 8% liquid oils from the recipe for a total of 44% liquid oils.

What if you want to use all mango butter or all shea butter? You can do that if you wish. If you use all shea butter, the product will be less stiff and you might need to increase the beeswax to 30%. If you use all mango butter, the product will be stiffer and a bit drier feeling. See the anhydrous primer recipe below for more information on using mango butter.

What if you want to use coconut oil? You can, but don't use it as a substitute for the butters. Substitute up to 20% of the liquid oils with coconut oil. Why can't you use all coconut oil? Because it has a melting point of 76˚F or about 24˚C, which isn't very high if you're leaving it in your car or your pocket on a hot day or in your bathroom after a warm shower!

Note: You can get coconut oil with higher melting points. If you do this, you can substitute it for some of the butters instead. Take a look at this example from Penny Lane Organics. Ask your local supplier if she has it in stock! 

A lip balm container will hold about 7.5 ml or 1.5 tsp - check with your supplier for the actual amount it will hold - so if you mix up 1 tbsp of lip balm, you should get 2 tubes - one for you, one for your giftee! (Do a little more than 15 ml or 1 tbsp because some will stay in the container when you pour it out. But you get the idea...)

Would you like to add a colour? I find between 5 small scoops (0.15 cc or 1/32 tsp) and 8 small  scoops of mica will create a really lovely colour that will leave a light shine on the lips. If you have a colour you really like for a blush, for instance, you can use that colour blend to make your lip shimmer. Make up the colour, then add between 5 and 8 small scoops to 1 tbsp of lip balm! (See below for more recipes with colour!)

I've created another recipe that I use as the base for my anhydrous eye shadow primer with titanium dioxide that is a bit stiffer and uses all beeswax as the base. (Check out the visual tutorial I created at SnapGuide.)

ANHYDROUS EYE SHADOW PRIMER
HEATED PHASE
20% beeswax
25% mango butter
40% oils of choice

COOL DOWN
15% oil soluble titanium dioxide or zinc oxide
0.5% Vitamin E (optional)

If you want to make this into a lip balm, just leave out the titanium dioxide or zinc oxide. To be honest, I don't think sunflower oil would be a good addition for a primer as you don't want something really greasy. But converting this recipe into a lip balm with up to 40% sunflower oil works really well. It's also a great base for a fragrance stick!

Lip balm posts:
Lip balms & lipsticks
Lipsticks: Modifying lip balms with iron oxides
Lipsticks: Modifying lip balms with titanium dioxide
Lipsticks: Modifying lip balms with boron nitride
Lipsticks: Modifying lip balms with Ronaspheres
Iron Chemist results: Sodium lactate
Visual tutorial on SnapGuide for making coloured lip balms
Duplicating products: Burt's Bees Lip Shimmers
Christmas presents: Lip shimmers & body glitter

One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in balms

Join me Monday as we meet the final product in this series - solid perfume. 

Thursday, July 17, 2014

One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in balms

Why should you choose sunflower oil for an oil based balm? Because...oh, I'll just let you read this post on sunflower oil to find out more as I'm sure you're sick of hearing me go on about the linoleic acid, oleic acid, and phytosterols already!

What is a balm? (From this post: Back to Basics: Balms) It is a "medicated topical preparation for application to the skin...(that is) rubbed in" (from Wikipedia). Obviously I won't be making any claims for the products we'll be making - we make cosmetic products, not drugs around here! - but we can consider a balm to be a product that includes ingredients we have chosen to change the appearance of our skin or hair, and that might help with a specific condition that's bugging us. Conditions like dry, itchy, sun exposed, or annoyed skin might be helped with a balm we might make. (A lip balm is intended to moisturize dry lips or provide sun protection, so it falls into this category.)

Balms can come in a variety of containers - deodorant sticks, lip balm tubes, tins, plastic containers, and so on. Because they don't contain water, you can put them in metal containers. (There are some really cute ones, like these sliding containers from Voyageur Soap & Candle!) You'll have to test your version to see which container works best!

BASIC BALM RECIPE
20% beeswax or soy wax
25% shea or mango butter
54% liquid oil
1% fragrance or essential oil

Weigh the wax, butter, and oil in a heatproof container and put into a double boiler. Melt until the solids are liquid. Remove and let cool to 45˚C before adding your fragrance or essential oil. Pour into your container or let sit in the Pyrex jug until cooled, then spoon into your container. Rejoice.

If you want to use cocoa butter, you'll want to reduce the beeswax to about 15% and up the liquid oil amount by 5%. If you want to use oils with a 6 months or less shelf life, add up to 1% Vitamin E.

My favourite recipe for balms is my manicure balm with lanolin and lecithin. Substitute the sunflower oil for the soy bean oil and you've got yourself a lovely balm for your fingers and nails! I cannot stress enough how much I love this balm!!! Give it a try!

Related posts:
Balms: Choosing the oils and butters
Balms: A new recipe idea
Balms: Tweaking the new recipe idea
Balms: Let's get complicated
Chemistry of our nails: A manicure balm

Other posts in this series:
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in body oils
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in blooming or dispersing bath oils
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in lotion bars
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in emulsified scrubs
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in a zinc oxide cream
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in a whipped butter
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in an oil based scrub
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in a body butter

Join me tomorrow for more fun formulating with sunflower oil! Two products to go!

Wednesday, July 16, 2014

One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in body butters

Sunflower oil is a great addition to a body butter thanks to the - oh no, she's going to mention it again!!! - linoleic acid, which helps speed up skin's barrier repair mechanisms and reduces transepidermal water lossoleic acid, which moisturizes and softens; and phytosterols, which reduce inflammation and itching.

As I've just covered this subject in the One ingredient, ten products: Incroquat BTMS-50 series, I won't go into graphic detail about making body butters. I will, however, offer a few suggestions for how to modify this recipe!

I like to make a body butter with all sunflower oil and shea butter, but this will result in a more greasy feeling product. You could reduce the greasiness with 2% IPP or IPM, or choose another butter, like mango butter. Having said this, if you make this product with either Incroquat BTMS-50 or Ritamulse SCG, you will have a more powdery, less greasy feeling product

If you want more information on how to make this product, please check out the Newbie Tuesday body butter post with instructions and general information.

BASIC BODY BUTTER RECIPE
HEATED WATER PHASE
61.5% water
3% humectant

HEATED OIL PHASE
10% oils
15% butter
3% cetyl alcohol
6% Incroquat BTMS-50 or 7% Polawax or 8% e-wax

COOL DOWN PHASE
0.5% to 1% preservative
1% fragrance or essential oil

Check out this very detailed post on how to make this product!

As a note, for any recipe you find calling for another emulsifier - Polawax, e-wax, Ritamulse SCG, and so on - you can substitute Incroquat BTMS-50 at the same amount. You can even reduce it, but that takes a bit of knowledge of how thick the product is in the first place. For any emulsifier - except Ritamulse SCG - just substitute it 1:1 for the emulsifier. So if you see 6.5% emulsifier in the recipe, use 6.5% Incroquat BTMS-50. I generally use Ritamulse SCG at 8% of a recipe, but that's a bit high for Incroquat BTMS-50 and will leave you with a really really thick product. You might like that, so keep that level if you wish, but my suggestion is to go with 6% and add 2% to the distilled water amount to compensate.

Related posts:
Lotions: Body butter with speciality ingredients
Formulating with oils: Body butter
Lotions: Body butter creams
Newbie Tuesday: You made a body butter! Questions?
Cocoa butter in a body butter
Formulating for your skin type: Body butter
Formulating for your skin type: Body butter for dry skin
Formulating for your skin type: Body butter for oily skin
Formulating for your skin type: Body butter for wrinkled skin
Formulating for dry skin: Making a body butter
Duplicating products: Boots Organic Rich Body Butter
More fun with the HLB system: Making a body butter
Adapting your products for summer: Making a body butter
Using cationic quats in other products: Making a body butter
Fun with hydrolyzed protein: A body butter recipe
Learning to formulate: Lotion with minimally processed ingredients

Other posts in this series:
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in body oils
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in blooming or dispersing bath oils
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in lotion bars
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in emulsified scrubs
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in a zinc oxide cream
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in a whipped butter
One ingredient, ten products: Sunflower oil in an oil based scrub

Join me tomorrow for more fun formulating with sunflower oil!