- a scale that can weigh 1 gram (available at supply stores or places like London Drugs in the culinary aisle)
- 2 heat proof containers
- a double boiler (make one up on the stove with a pot with warm water)
- a thermometer (a candy thermometer works really well here)
- spoons (metal ones...)
- mixer (with beater attachments) or a stick blender
Tuesday, March 31, 2009
Monday, March 30, 2009
- Chemical emulsification - choosing a good emulsifier will save you heartache in the end. If you want to learn more about emulsifiers, the HLB (hydrophilic-lipophilic balance chart) is a great place to start, but I generally choose emulsifying wax as it is a good all around emulsifier for basic lotions. (Polawax, emulsifying wax, and BTMS-50 are all-around emulsification systems, so they're easy to use).
- Heat emulsification - we have to heat our ingredients up to a place where they are happy to emulsify.
- Mechanical emulsification - we have to blend our ingredients together using a hand or stand mixer or stick blender.
- A scale - you can get a decent one from London Drugs or a kitchen supply shop or Voyageur for $40 or so. (You will see recipes in volume format, but weighing is far more accurate, especially for smaller quantities like preservatives or fragrance oils).
- Pyrex jugs or other heat proof jugs or stainless steel pots. At a minimum, have 2 - 2 cup jugs (but you'll want more!)
- Spoons - Metal spoons you only use for making things. Go to a restaurant supply store and get 50 for $5.00.
- Stick blender or mixer with beater attachments (for lotion) or whisk attachments (for mousses)
- Candy thermometer - inexpensive, accurate, and good for testing temperatures
- A funnel to pour the lotions into bottles
- A bottle (new and clean). Get these from the dollar store or from your local supplier.
Sunday, March 29, 2009
Saturday, March 28, 2009
- Water soluble oil - this is the backbone of this recipe. 10 to 20% or so. The higher the oil amount or the heavier the oil, the higher the oiliness will be, so choose according to your desired oil level.
- Water or hydrosol - lavender and aloe are both lovely for soothing, so let's add that at 70 to 80%
- Preservative - as this is water based, you'll need 0.5% (Germall Plus) to 1% (Germaben II)
- Protein - this is will add extra conditioning, so we'll put in 2%
- Panthenol - never a bad thing to add, so let's include 2%
- Humectants - if you are using olive oil, you have a humectant in here. And the protein acts as a humectant. If you wanted to include glycerin (2%) or propylene glycol (2%) or sodium lactate (2%), that wouldn't be a bad thing.
Friday, March 27, 2009
- Something with glide
- Something cleansing
- Something emollient
Thursday, March 26, 2009
- BSB - the pH is perfect for no more tears. It's mild, and it's thick. (Use any "baby blend" as a substitute).
- Coco betaine - I want it to be mild. This is a good foamer, but we'll take care of that with the oils.
- Aloe vera - soothing
- Lavender or calendula water soluble - soothing
- Crothix - anti-irritant and thickening
- Conditioning polymer - (polyquat 7, polyquat 10, honeyquat) - conditioning, humectant-y
- Oils - oils will add emolliency and reduce the lather. Ideally you'll use a water soluble oil (olive oil or soy are great!). If not, then use an emollient oil like sunflower or olive oil and add...
- Polysorbate 80 - an emulsifier for oils in surfactant systems. Use at 1:1 ratio with your oils.
- Protein - conditioning
- Preservative - gotta have this!
- Water - of course, but you could do all aloe vera and hydrosols if you wanted
Wednesday, March 25, 2009
Tuesday, March 24, 2009
- Lipstick ingredients - start here for all the basics.
- Lipstick recipes - great recipe!
- Figure out your perfect colour - great ideas!
- More ideas for colour and recipes - I love this one!
- Colourful lip balms in wonderful colours
- Mother's day lipsticks - best ways to pour lipsticks and lip balms.
- Filling containers and labelling - this post is a must!
- use oil soluble titanium dioxide in lipsticks. The water soluble will not mix well!
- if you want a sheer lip colour, use micas only. If you want an opaque one, use some titanium dioxide and lip safe ultramarines, iron oxides, and magnesium thingies.
- before pouring into the tube or pot, pour some on a piece of paper and let set (or a wooden popsicle or coffee stir stick). Try it on your lips. If you like it, pour it. If you want more colour, mix it in, then try the test again.
- WRITE EVERYTHING DOWN! I cannot stress this enough. Even if you think you're going to hate the colour, write every single bit down so you will remember later. Because you'll probably like it and want to kill yourself for not making notes!
Monday, March 23, 2009
- It can act as a moisturizer as well - which is a bonus; and
- It will stay on your body longer than a water based mist.
Sunday, March 22, 2009
Saturday, March 21, 2009
Friday, March 20, 2009
Exotic oils (not a term you want to search for as I think I made it up?) are usually quite expensive (compared to carrier oils like olive or sunflower oil) but we add them in small amounts because they contain vitamins, minerals, or fatty acids our skin just loves! I'll give you some examples of how to use these oils in our creations for specific needs. I've added the shelf-life and INCI information for your reference.
Thursday, March 19, 2009
Wednesday, March 18, 2009
Whipped butters are anhydrous (they do not contain water) and they are super easy to make if you have a double boiler and a hand or stand mixer with a whipping attachment. Buying whipped butters in a store will cost you a fortune, but making your own is a really affordable decadence that doesn't take a lot of money and even fewer supplies!
Tuesday, March 17, 2009
3 tablespoons Meringue Powder
4 cups (about 1lb.) confectioners' sugar (454 grams)
6 tablespoons warm water
Beat all ingredients until icing forms peaks (7-10 minutes at low speed with a heavy-duty mixer, 10-12 minutes at high speed with a hand-held mixer).
*When using large countertop mixer or for stiffer icing, use 1 tablespoon less water.
Thinned Royal Icing: To thin for pouring on to cookies, add 1 teaspoon water per cup of royal icing. Use grease-free spoon or spatula to stir slowly. Add 1/2 teaspoon water at a time until you reach proper consistency. (What is the proper consistency? Hold a teaspoon of the mixture over a cup and let it drip off. It should re-incorporate into the icing in the cup by a count of 10!)
Using a #2 tip, outline the cookie in the stiffer consistency icing.
Fill the cookie using the thin icing and a spoon.
As a note, there are great pictures on the Wilton website for these cookies!
How to fill and use the piping bag
Cake decorating basics!
How to Eat a Cupcake - awesome recipes and ideas!
Cupcake Bake Shop
Hi-Hat Cupcakes at Martha Stewart - very challenging, and ignore the stupid video (turn your sound down!)
How to make cream cheese cherry filling (or other flavoured fillings!)
1 - 8oz package of cream cheese (regular, not light!)
1 tin of pie filling (any flavour) - about 500 ml
Cream the cream cheese until it is soft. Leave it out of the fridge to get soft before using.
Then blend up the pie filling until the berries or bits are blended. We used a food processor -- you can use a blender or chopper here.
Mix together. Put into piping bag with a berliner tip on it (some call it an eclair tip) and pipe into your cupcakes!
I hope you enjoying decorating the cakes (and then, of course, eating them!) As a note, did you know that you can get almost 80 mini cupcakes from one box of cake mix? (So 3 mini cupcakes work out to about 1 large cupcake...with more icing! Which is always a bonus!) And don't forget to bake the cupcakes at about 2/3 of the time as the large cupcakes -- so for a recipe calling for 17 minutes for a regular cupcake, try it at 12 minutes or you'll burn them!
- sunflower oil - a great emollient (about 20% of the bar)
- hempseed oil - I can use this in a lotion bar as I'll be using it quickly, and it is fabulous for my skin (about 13%). I will need to add 1% Vitamin E in this bar for sure!
- cocoa butter - it lays down a protective barrier to trap in moisture
- avocado butter or avocado oil - a heavy oil great for really dry and chapped areas
- mango butter - if I use 33% mango butter, it'll be quite soft, but very emollient
- avocado butter & mango butter (equal amounts) - a quite soft, but emollient bar
- olive oil - a great humectant (draws water from the atmosphere) about 1/2 the oils amount
- aloe oil - a great healing oil (not making a claim here, but it is awfully good!)
- aloe butter - the goodness of aloe in a butter - but very very soft (about 15%)
- cocoa butter - to harden the bar and offer great emolliency
10% fractionated coconut oil - this is a very light oil, very emollient
25% sunflower oil - conditioning for the skin
3% rice bran oil - high in Vitamin E
30% mango butter - creamy and emollient
2% IPM - (an ester) IPM helps greasy things feel less greasy and sinks in quickly
2% cyclomethicone - this silicone helps with the glide
2% vitamin E - to prevent rancidity and good for my skin
- Packaging: Wrap them in foil and label them, then present in a nice cellophane bag.
- Chocolate molds and silicone ice cube trays are great for molding lotion bars!
- Packaging: Find some nice tins for portability!
- Make sure you label your lotion bars so you know which one you loved best or so your giftee knows what they are getting! Please note on your labels that these are NOT EDIBLE even if they are adorable and smell great. (A co-worker tried to eat one I scented with pecan praline!)
Monday, March 16, 2009
Almost every question you can think of asking me about oils will be found there. I'm not kidding! Check out the emollients section of the blog! now!
It is great fun tweaking a recipe to suit your needs, and knowing your oils is a great way to make a creation your own. You can extend the shelf life of your oils by adding up to 0.5% Vitamin E to your creations or to the oils themselves. Unsaturated oils - meaning those with a double bond - will go rancid more quickly than saturated oils. The oils we use in bath & body products are called "carrier oils" (at the suppliers' sites) and they are all unsaturated oils. (Some of the butters will be saturated, but for the most part, you are going to be using unsaturated, liquid oils in your creations.)
- What do I want in a moisturizing lotion or bar? If you are looking for help with dry, cracked skin, you will use different oils than if you are looking for anti-inflammatory oils that might help with acne.
- How long is the shelf life of the oil? Hempseed oil, for instance, is fantastic stuff, but if it is going to be rancid in 3 months, it might not be ideal for something you are going to take a long time to use.
- How much does the oil cost? If you find something you simply have to have, then use it! But if you are going to be using a lot of something, consider the cost when tweaking a recipe.
Shelf life: about 1 year.
Castor oil - heavy weight, low
A humectant, it attracts and retains moisture to the skin. It is a thick, viscous oil, soothing and lubricating, and it is absorbed quickly. It is good for muscle aches. It acts as a barrier agent.
Shelf life: about 1 year.
Fractionated coconut oil - very light weight (technically, this is an ester)
Absorbed by the skin well and doesn't stain clothing or sheets. Great for hair care products.
Shelf life: more than 1 year
Grapeseed oil - light weight
A slightly astringent oil good for hypoallergenic applications, massage oils, and facial moisturizers.
Shelf life: 3 to 6 months
Hempseed oil - light to medium weight (if it is refined or unrefined)
Protects skin, offers anti-inflammatory properties. With a high content of fatty acids, it resembles the body's natural sebum, making it great for acne prone skin. It is quickly absorbed into the skin. It contains ceramides, which protect the skin. Very high in gamma linolenic acid.
Shelf life: under 3 months (store in the refrigerator and always add Vitamin E to any creation with hempseed oil.)
Hazelnut oil - light weight
Not great for mature, aging skin but good for oily skin due to its astringent properties. Highly penetrative and nutritive to skin and hair. Very high in fatty acids. (If you have full blown acne on your face, odds are good you have reduced linoleic acid levels, which means this isn't a great oil for your skin.)
Shelf life: 6 to 9 months.
Jojoba oil - light to medium weight
Great for premature aging and wrinkling skin and sensitive or oily skin. Anti-inflammatory, bactericidal properties. Adds denseness to skin lubricants as it is a liquid wax. It resembles human sebum, and is great for hair care and facial products.
Shelf life: over 1 year.
Macademia nut oil - medium weight, low comedogenity
Resembles the skin's sebum, so great for facial applications.
Shelf life: 9 to 12 months.
Olive oil - heavy weight
Acts as a humectant, attracting external moisture. Good for inflamed skin. Does not block the natural functions of the skin, and could be good for cell regeneration.
Shelf life: 1 year.
Rice bran oil - medium weight
Good for sensitive, mature, or aging skin. A great emollient with softening and moisturizing properties. High in fatty acids, Vitamin E complex, phytosterols, polyphenols, and squalene. It contains the highest amount of Vitamin E in all the natural oils. Can act as an anti-oxidant for other oils.
Shelf life: 1 year
Safflower oil - light weight, low
Great for mature or damaged skin, should be the first consideration when creating a moisturizing lotion. High in Vitamins A, D & E, lecithin, and omega 9. Can offer cell regenerating properties and excellent skin peentration.
Shelf life: 3 to 6 months.
Sesame oil - light to medium weight, low
Rich in fatty acids, Vitamins B & E, calcium, magnesium & phosphorus. A good emollient, it restructures and moisturizes skin. Great for massage oils as it does not stain clothes or sheets.
Shelf life: 6 to 9 months
Soy bean oil - light weight, medium comedogenity
Good carrier oil with 60% unsaturated fatty acids. A source of Vitamin E. (As this is a very low cost oil, consider this as the backbone of a lotion bar or other oil based product).
Shelf life: 6 to 9 months
Sunflower oil - light weight, low comedogenity
Great for mature, dry, sensitive, or damaged skin. High in essential fatty acids. Offers moisturizing, cell regeneration, and conditioning for the skin. Great for recipes designed to treat dry, weathered, aged, or damaged skin. Lays down a slightly oily protective layer on the skin that resists rancidity. (As a note, look for high oleic sunflower oil as this has a longer shelf life).
Shelf life: 6 to 9 months.
Sweet almond oil - light weight, low comedogenity
An excellent emollient and softener. It is lubricating, but not penetrating. Good for skin that is very dry or inflamed.
Rich in essential fatty acids, vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, and E.
Shelf life: 6 to 9 months.